LM35 Sensor Datasheet and Circuit Schematic Overview
The LM35 sensor series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature.
LM35 Sensor Specification
The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit LM35 temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 sensor thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 sensor does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±¼°C at room temperature and ±¾°C over a full -55 to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35's low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 µA from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a -55° to +150°C temperature range, while the LM35C sensor is rated for a -40° to +110°C range (-10° with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D sensor is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.
LM35 Sensor Circuit Schematic
LM35 Sensor Pinouts and Packaging
LM35 Sensor Sources
There are several manufacturers of this popular part and each has LM35 sensor specs, datasheets and other free LM35 downloads. This amplifier is available from the following manufacturers.
- National Semiconductor
- On Semiconductor
- Texas Instruments
- Fairchild Semiconductor
- Jameco Electronics
- Analog Devices
Project: How to Waterproof a LM35 Temperature Sensor
Here is a instructable to waterproof a LM35 for use on a tethered ROV using a automobile 12V battery as a power source. This came out of a need for the MATE ROV Competition. The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. See it Step by Step.
Project: How to Make a Temperature Recorder using LM35
Here is how you can make an LM35 an temperature recorder by using the 12F675 PIC microcontroller as the controller and data store. It generates serial output so that you can view the results on a PC and it also calculates the temperature reading in Fahrenheit sending both to the serial port at half second intervals. See it Step by Step.
LM35 Sensor Background and Applications
Most commonly-used electrical temperature sensors are difficult to apply. For example, thermocouples have low output levels and require cold junction compensation. Thermistors are nonlinear. In addition, the outputs of these sensors are not linearly proportional to any temperature scale. Early monolithic sensors, such as the LM3911, LM134 and LM135, overcame many of these difficulties, but their outputs are related to the Kelvin temperature scale rather than the more popular Celsius and Fahrenheit scales. Fortunately, in 1983 two I.C.’s, the LM34 Precision Fahrenheit Temperature Sensor and the LM35 Precision Celsius Temperature Sensor, were introduced. This application note will discuss the LM34, but with the proper scaling factors can easily be adapted to the LM35.
The LM35/LM34 has an output of 10 mV/°F with a typical nonlinearity of only ±0.35°F over a −50 to +300°F temperature range, and is accurate to within ±0.4°F typically at room temperature (77°F). The LM34’s low output impedance and linear output characteristic make interfacing with readout or control circuitry easy. An inherent strength of the LM34 sensor over other currently available temperature sensors is that it is not as susceptible to large errors in its output from low level leakage currents. For instance, many monolithic temperature sensors have an output of only 1 μA/°K. This leads to a 1°K error for only 1 μ-Ampere of leakage current. On the other hand, the LM34 sensor may be operated as a current mode device providing 20 μA/°F of output current. The same 1 μA of leakage current will cause an error in the LM34’s output of only 0.05°F (or 0.03°K after scaling).
Low cost and high accuracy are maintained by performing trimming and calibration procedures at the wafer level. The device may be operated with either single or dual supplies. With less than 70 μA of current drain, the LM34 sensor has very little self-heating (less than 0.2°F in still air), and comes in a TO-46 metal can package, a SO-8 small outline package and a TO-92 plastic package.
The LM35/LM34 is a versatile device which may be used for a wide variety of applications, including oven controllers and remote temperature sensing. The device is easy to use (there are only three terminals) and will be within 0.02°F of a surface to which it is either glued or cemented. The TO-46 package allows the user to solder the sensor to a metal surface, but in doing so, the GND pin will be at the same potential as that metal. For applications where a steady reading is desired despite small changes in temperature, the user can solder the TO-46 package to a thermal mass. Conversely, the thermal time constant may be decreased to speed up response time by soldering the sensor to a small heat fin.
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